The first month of the First World War had resulted in a series of victories by German forces in France and Belgium. The battle was considered a major victory, however, for the Allies. Casualties at the Battle of the Aisne: In the operations between 13th and 15th September 1914 BEF’s I Corps suffered casualties of around 3,500 men killed wounded and missing. The Aisne was the scene of two more important battles: 2nd Battle of the Aisne (16th April, 1917 - 9th May, 1917) and 3rd Battle of the Aisne (27th May, 1918 - 6th June, 1918). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British aircraft were used to report troop movements, although few were equipped with wireless. It soon became clear that neither side could budge the other and since neither chose to retreat, the impasse hardened into stalemate, that would lock the antagonists into a relatively narrow strip for the next four years. British attacks are repelled and both sides dig in: for the British, the Aisne was the root of trench warfare. It was also the beginning of trench warfare. One 6-inch gun poked out at each mile; none of these forts had high explosive projectiles or smokeless gunpowder and several thousand surrounding acres had been cleared to provide unobstructed fields of fire. Although a poor match against the German 8-inch (200 mm) howitzers, they helped somewhat. French casualties were heavy, with 98,000 losses; their British allies suffered 29,000 casualties. Huddled together, they made easy artillery targets. Low crops in the unfenced countryside offered no natural concealment to the Allies. After six days of stubborn fighting, the remaining garrison retired across the Scheldt River to the southern border of the Netherlands, while the rest of the Belgian army retreated to the West, to defend the last piece of Belgian territory in the Battle of the Yser (16–31 October 1914). At daybreak on 29 September, General Hans von Beseler, called out of retirement at the age of sixty-five, arrayed six divisions in an arc facing the outer ring of forts. The First Battle of the Aisne (French: 1re Bataille de l'Aisne) was the Allied follow-up offensive against the right wing of the German First Army (led by Alexander von Kluck) and the Second Army (led by Karl von Bülow) as they retreated after the First Battle of the Marne earlier in September 1914. The Germans made plans on 28 September to capture the port of Antwerp and crush the Belgian forces. The offensive began on the evening of 13 September, after a hasty pursuit of the Germans. Soon the trenches were deepened to about seven feet. The Third Battle of the Aisne (French: 3 e Bataille de l'Aisne) was a battle of the German Spring Offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Forces arrived completely in France.It was one of a series of offensives, known as the Kaiserschlacht, launched by the Germans in the spring and summer of 1918. Maunoury exploited the gap with help from the French Fifth Army and British Expeditionary Force, … Although the Belgian forces fought a desperate battle along Yser, the BEF came under attack around Ypres. The British Expeditionary Force lost 12,733 men during the battle. Many of those killed at the Aisne are buried at Vailly British Cemetery.[2]. Low-lying ground extends a 1-mile (1.6 km) on each side, rising abruptly to a line of steep cliffs 300–400 feet (91–122 m) high, then gently levelling to a plateau. What are synonyms for battle of the Aisne? East of Chemin des Dames, the French Fourth, Fifth and Ninth armies made only negligible progress beyond the positions they had reached on 13 September. Fighting continued until 28th September when it was acknowledged that frontal infantry attacks on well-defended positions, would cause heavy casualties and was unlikely to gain a breakthrough. On 24 September, Lieutenants B.T. The First Battle of Marne ended with around 500,000 casualties from both sides. Casualties and losses: : About 12.000. The Allies had around 263,000 soldiers wounded including 81,000 that died. Siege howitzers now lobbed massive shells into the Allied trenches. 12 – 15 September 1914: the Battle of the Aisne. At the end of that first day, the French had suffered over 40,000 casualties, but despite what had now become a forlorn hope, the attacks continued over the coming days, during which, in a Herculean effort, the 69 th Battalion of the Senegalese Infantry managed to reach Hurtebise farm on the top of the Chemin des Dames ridge before it was finally annihilated, almost to a man. The Chemin des Dames Ridge provided a long natural defensive position and the Germans began to dig in. As the Germans aimed for the Allied left flank, the Allies sought the German right wing. 12. Having implemented the Schlieffen Plan at the war's outset, German forces swung through Belgium and into France from north. The Serbian campaign was disastrous for Austria-Hungary and Kolubara marked the turning point in favour of the Serbians. The First Battle of the Aisne (French: 1re Bataille de l'Aisne) was the Allied follow-up offensive against the right wing of the German First Army (led by Alexander von Kluck) & Second Army (led by Karl von Bülow) as they retreated after the First Battle of the Marne earlier in September 1914. Without training for stationary warfare, the troops merely dug shallow pits in the soil. The cemetery now contains over 670 Commonwealth burials and commemorations of the First World War. Cavalry Division The Allied pursuit had been slow, hampered by fatigue, stretched supply lines and German rearguard actions. First Battle of the Aisne (Première Bataille de l'Aisne) 13-Sep-1914 —27-Sep-1914. The enemy had to be chased across the Ourcq, and on September 11, when that had been effected, our cavalry approached the Aisne, two brigades being to the direct south of Soissons and three to the south-east, near the villages of Couvrelle and Cerseuil, which stand on high ground sloping down towards the Aisne's tributary, the Vesle. The French offensive achieved little and ended with the disintegration of the French Army. The World War I First Battle of the Marne featured the first use of radio intercepts and automotive transport of troops in wartime. Skilful use of trench mortars and hand and rifle grenades (first used against British troops on 27 September), enabled the Germans to inflict great losses upon Allied troops, who had neither been trained nor equipped with these weapons. The period is called "Race to the Sea". The First Battle of the Marne was fought September 6-12, 1914, during World War I (1914-1918) and marked the limit of Germany's initial advance into France. Although the Germans never published the figures, it is believed that Geman losses were similar to those of France. The armies on both sides of the First Battle of the Marne suffered heavy casualties. By the end of August 1914, most of the Allied army on the Western Front had been forced into a general retreat back between Paris and Verdun. Cavalry Division This important maritime city was encircled by an obsolete fortress system that could not withstand even 6-inch shells. Germans, on the other hand, are also estimated to face … Meanwhile, the five German armies that had just conquered Belgium continued to advance through France. During the battle, the French had around 250,000 casualties. There were two later battles on the Aisne; the second (April–May 1917) and the third (May–June 1918). The French used tanks for the first time, but they were ineffective. Only their 60-pounders (four guns to a division) were powerful enough to shell enemy gun emplacements from the Aisne's south shore, and these guns were inferior to German artillery in calibre, range and numbers. At Chivres-Val east of Venizel, there was an escarpment the Germans had selected as their strongest position. Second Battle of the Aisne 16 April – 9 May 1917 – 355,000 Casualties German soldiers at the Battle of the Aisne firing from the cover of some trees. Battle of the Aisne 1917. Battle of Kolubara The Chemin des Dames Ridge provided a long natural defensive position and the Germans began to dig in. d. The French attacked also on April 16, beginning the Second Battle of the Aisne (The “Nivelle Offensive”). For other battles of the Aisne, see, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=First_Battle_of_the_Aisne&oldid=992819569, Battles of World War I involving the United Kingdom, Battles of the Western Front (World War I), Articles lacking in-text citations from September 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 07:24. Meanwhile, the Belgian Army became a growing threat to German communications as the battle shifted northward. The offensive began on the evening of 13 September, after a hasty pursuit of the Germans. The Chemin des Dames Ridge provided a long natural defensive position and the Germans began to dig in. Aided by aircraft spotting, German gunners quickly found their targets. Casualties and losses: : About 12.000. Here the Germans strongly entrenched themselves, but they left detachments also entrenched in commanding situations on the slopes and spurs of the heights, and these advanced points of defence were well supported by artillery. Synonyms for battle of the Aisne in Free Thesaurus. The German Army used only percussion shells, which, according to Canadian sources, "not one in several hundred ever hit its aerial target, and fell to earth frequently at some point in the British lines and there burst.". Anti-aircraft fire was desultory and inaccurate. The French lost at least 50,000 at Ypres, while the Belgians suffered more than 20,000 casualties at the Yser and Ypres. Defensive firepower was limited to rifles and two machine guns allotted to each battalion. This resulted in the “Race to the Sea” as Entente and German forces simultaneously sought to turn the northern flank of their opponent. The attack was called off on the 20th. This article is about the 1914 battle. A month of fighting at Ypres cost the Germans more than 130,000 casualties, a staggering total that would ultimately pale before later actions on the Western Front. 9-Apr-1917 First Battle of the Aisne: | | | | | | First Bat... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. The period is called "Race to the Sea". On the first day of battle, the British suffered almost 60,000 casualties. The First World War – The First Battle of the Aisne 13 – 28 September 1914. These were at first intended only to afford cover against enemy observation and artillery fire. In a strategic triumph at the First Battle of the Marne, the French forces - assisted by the British - had succeeded in throwing back the German offensive, recapturing lost ground in the process. British order of battle. After French commander in chief Joseph Joffre ordered an offensive in September 1914, General Michel-Joseph Maunourys French Sixth Army opened a gap between Germanys First and Second Armies. 13. The First Battle of Marne was won by the French in less than ten days, but it led to two main events of World War I: the First Battle of Aisne that lasted between the 12th and 15th of September, 1914, and Race to the Sea that lasted between 17th September and 19thof October, 1914. This article is about the 1914 battle. The First Battle of the Aisne (French: 1re Bataille de l'Aisne) was the Allied follow-up offensive against the right wing of the German First Army (led by Alexander von Kluck) and the Second Army (led by Karl von Bülow) as they retreated after the First Battle of the Marne earlier in September 1914. On this day, the Germans started attacking from the coast to the south of Ypres. The First Battle of the Aisne (French: 1re Bataille de l'Aisne) was the Allied follow-up offensive against the right wing of the German First Army (led by Alexander von Kluck) & Second Army (led by Karl von Bx¼low) as they retreated after the First Battle of the Marne earlier in September 1914. He was an artillery officer who had made his name during the later phases of the Battle of Verdun. The offensive began on the evening of 13 September, after a hasty pursuit of the Germans. The forces on the northern plateau commanded a wide field of fire.[1]. Germans Entrench their Positions on the Aisne. Between Compiègne and Berry-au-Bac, the Aisne River winds westward and is about 100 feet (30 m) wide, ranging from 12–15 feet (3.7–4.6 m) deep. Contact was established along the entire front. After their defeat by the Allied forces at The Battle of the Marne, the German armies had undergone a tactical withdrawal towards the River Aisne. The First Battle of the Aisne (French: 1re Bataille de l'Aisne) was the Allied follow-up offensive against the right wing of the German First Army (led by Alexander von Kluck) & Second Army (led by Karl von Bx¼low) as they retreated after the First Battle of the Marne earlier in September 1914. 1st Battle of the Aisne After the first battle at the Marne in September 1914, the German Army was able to deploy its forces along the north bank of the River Aisne, a tributary of the Oise. The Germans settled on the higher northern side 2 miles (3.2 km) beyond the crest, behind a dense thicket that covered the front and slope. The first battle of Ypres officially started on October 19. The French Army (5th and 6th) and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) launched a frontal assault at the Aisne on 13th September. The French Fifth Army crossed the Aisne at Berry-au-Bac and captured the eastern tip of Chemin des Dames, a steep ridge named after the royal coach road Louis XV had built for his daughters. The battle also succeeded in drawing German forces away from the French attack at the Aisne. Lewis detected three well-concealed enemy gun batteries that were inflicting considerable damage on British positions. The first day of the Battle of the Aisne. After the first battle at the Marne in September, 1914, the German Army was able to deploy its forces along the north bank of the River Aisne, a tributary of the Oise. In dense fog on the night of 13 September, most of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) crossed the Aisne on pontoons or partially demolished bridges, landing at Bourg-et-Comin on the right and at Venizel on the left. Those caught in the valley without the fog's protective shroud fared no better. 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