But in practical terms, there is a Christian Yes to African religiosity. My findings were used in teaching, but eventually I put them together in a book, Concepts of God in Africa, published by the British publisher SPCK (1970). Following a period of parish work in England, I went to teach at Makerere University, Uganda, where I remained for ten years until 1974. This rapid spreading of the Christian faith where people have been predominantly followers of African religion provokes interesting questions. These statements await further exploration by African theologians. Spiritual activities like prayer, thanksgiving, and the making of sacrifices were well-established facts of But God’s dealings with the African people are recorded, nevertheless, in living form -- oral communication, rituals, symbols, ceremonies, community faith. But this new Africa, he believed lay far in the future. Missionaries and Colonization Hilde Arntsen, Lecturer, Department of Media and Communication, University of Oslo Jesus has been hijacked by Western culture so as to make him "white", he was not. “Children, here is a nation that God If they are two wavelengths, they make sense only when they move toward a convergence. On the other hand, Western missionaries come to Africa as a remnant of the Western church to prepare Africa to send missionaries to Europe in the future. (Read: Nature Knows No Colour Line by J. I have concentrated these comments on the role of African background in my theological reflection. The more I peeped into African religious insights about God, the more I felt utterly unable to use the word "only" in this case. The books in the Bible written by Moses describe an Afri-can setting. The WCC’s very existence as a council of churches is a living hope. A conference of mainly African theologians, held in Ghana in December 1977, said in its final communiqué: "The God of history speaks to all peoples in particular ways. They came to Africa with a book, to a people who were already living the culture of the book. People often jokingly say that the Missionaries did not bring God to Africa, they brought Jesus. Dr. Mbiti is on the staff of the Ecumenical Institute at Bossey, Switzerland. My doctoral studies in New Testament eschatology led me also to the field of Christology. Firstly; all religions, be it Pagan, Buddhism, Islam, Judaism and Christianity are  rooted in Africa. When the missionaries came to Southern Africa they found us circumcising our boys this means we already shared in the promises of Abraham. Nevertheless, I am convinced that the World Council of Churches is a great witness of the Christian response to the prayer of our Lord that we may all be one. To ease their dissonance they demonised everything African, including our names. In particular, the concepts about God provide one area of great commonality. Instead, God brought them, for the God described in the Bible is none other than the God who was already known in the framework of our traditional African religiosity. While North American missionaries began to contribute to this cause in the early nineteenth century, their involvement in Africa peaked, like most European missionary efforts, during the heyday of European colonialism between the partitioning of the continent in 1884-1885 and the onset of decolonization in the 1960s. In 1900 there were an estimated 9 million Christians (accounting for about 7 per cent of the population of Africa). But I have discovered that there is also the fundamental factor of African religion, without which this phenomenal expansion of Christianity would not be a reality. I want to reflect and write on this topic, but somehow it makes me feel frightened. In Kenya I grew up in home, school and church milieus which held that the African religious and cultural background was demonic and anti-Christian. But they used the names of the God who was and is already known by African peoples -- such as Mungu, Mulungu, Katonda, Ngai, Olodumare, Asis, Ruwa, Ruhanga, Jok, Modimo, Unkulunkulu and thousands more. We can list some obvious and often publicized factors. This massive expansion within a short time is unprecedented in the history of Christianity. The Torah or the Bible are books telling African  History with God. The first and most intriguing topic that immediately engaged my attention was the thinking of African peoples about God. In fact, the Bible is African History. In one case the thinking and experience of the people produced a written record of God’s dealings with the Jewish people in particular. Colonization was expedited by the use of religion, and in particular, Christianity. I find the traditional Western distinction between "special revelation" and "general revelation" to be inadequate and unfreeing. Some individuals have criticized these books -- and no book is perfect. The Missionaries of Africa were founded 150 years ago for the Evangelization of Africa. So the church which exists on the African scene bears the marks of its people’s backgrounds. In the other case no such written record exists. David Livingstone: An African Hero On the other hand they were possessed of a moral self-righteousness which led them to make hasty and u… Robinson, came out. I am very excited, for example, by the estimate that in 1987 there will be a statistical balance of Christian population between the north (Europe, Soviet Union and America) and the south (Latin America, Africa, Asia and Oceania). They constitute an important channel of the church’s prophetic witness today. Marriage – (Genesis 24:53, Genesis 29:16-28 and Exodus 22:16-17): Ceremonies to ask for rain as the bible instructs (Zechariah 10:1) were practiced in Africa. Currently I am about to complete a book on this question of the encounter between the biblical faith and African religion. Since I myself had never heard any lectures on African religion, I set out to do research on the subject in order to teach the course adequately. His Brother, Mizram, ruled over Egypt. In this case, so-called "salvation history" must widen its outreach in order to embrace the horizons of other peoples’ histories. What is new to Africans is the image of a  white Jesus. According to Josephus (Antiquities of Jews, AD 93-94) about 1mil Jews remained in Israel and by AD 70 most of them had sought refuge abroad and many were already residing in Africa. The missionaries who introduced the gospel to Africa in the past 200 years did not bring God. The missionaries who introduced the gospel to Africa in the past 200 years did not bring God to our continent. For this reason, some African theologians take African religiosity to be one of the sources of theological reflection (besides the Bible, Christian heritage, etc.). But it is nevertheless a working Yes and one that demands theological understanding. What factors are responsible for it? What man did God use to bring evangelism and revival to cities in the East Charles Finney 1. The editor of The Christian Century has given me an undeserved privilege in asking me to contribute some reflections on "How My Mind Has Changed" in the course of the past decade. Years of guidance by Christian missionaries and settlers would be needed to bring it into being. When this happens, then a passage such as Hebrews 1:1-3 rolls down like mighty waters, full of exciting possibilities of theological reflection. They will certainly be overwhelming, and I feel very excited about them. This is not a biblical distinction. There is not space here to argue the case for the role played by African religion in the establishment of the Christian faith in Africa. The feast of the first fruits is vividly remembered by the Ndebele people because it was at this time of the year that Nkulumane, son of Mzilikazi, was set as king of Mthwakazi when Mzilikazi was still alive. 1. Missionaries of Africa have converged at the Catholic Shrine Namugongo, Uganda for celebrations of 150 years “sesquicentennial Jubilee” since they were founded in 1968 in Africa to spread the Gospel. A. Rodgers, 1952. Let’s go back to our point of departure. > Did the Africans believe in God before the missionaries came? RESCUED FROM SLAVERY The … And this witness deserves one’s support through service and prayer. Most of the rituals are directly linked to the bible. I have been greatly enriched by working at the Ecumenical Institute at Bossey, 1974-1980. 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